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First, human beings are culturally embedded in the sense that they grow up and live within a culturally structured world and organize their lives and social relations in terms of a culturally derived system of meaning and significance. The core of the book addresses the important theoretical questions raised by contemporary multicultural society, especially the nature and limits of intercultural equality and fairness, national identity, citizenship, and cross-cultural political discourse.
Citizenship is about status and rights; belonging is about acceptance, feeling welcome, a sense of identification. He then discusses how it can be revised and what new conceptual tools are needed.
They do and should matter to each other because they are bonded together by the ties of common interest and attachment. The American Whites, for example, take a demeaning view of Blacks partly under the influence of the racist culture, partly because this helps them justify the prevailing system of domination, and partly because the deeply disadvantaged Blacks do sometimes exhibit some of the features that confirm White stereotypes. A dialogue between cultures requires that each should be willing to open itself up to the influence of and learn from others, and this presupposes that it is self-critical and willing and able to engage in a dialogue with itself.
When the rthinking culture defines the minorities in a demeaning way and systematically reinforces it by all the institutional and other means parek its disposal, they consciously or unconsciously internalize the negative self-image, lack self-esteem, and feel alienated from the mainstream society.
This is a formidable theoretical and political task and no multicultural society has so far succeeded in tackling it. Retrieved from ” https: In it, Bhikhu Parekh shows that the Western tradition of political philosophy has very limited theoretical resources to cope with cultural diversity.
Patriotism is not hhikhu monopoly of the conservatives, and the socialists, the radicals and the communists can be loyal to their community just as much as and even more than they are. While different citizens would develop different emotions towards their community, what is necessary to sustain it and can legitimately be expected of them is a basic commitment to its integrity and well-being, what one might call patriotism or political loyalty.
Views Read Edit View history. This involves granting them equal rights of citizenship, a decent standard of living, and the opportunity to develop themselves and participate in and make their respective contributions to its collective life. Cultures grow out of conscious and rethinling interactions with each other, define their identity in terms of what they take to be their significant other, and are at least partially multicultural in their origins and constitution.
Parekh’s text was criticized from other cultural authors based on his opinions in the pzrekh. It is caused by, among other things, the manner in which pareih wider society defines itself, the demeaning ways in which the rest of its members talk about these groups, and the dismissive or patronizing ways in which they treat them.
What I might call a multiculturalist perspective is composed of the creative interplay of these three important and complementary insights — namely the cultural embeddedness of human beings, the inescapability and desirability of cultural plurality, and the plural and multicultural constitution of each culture.
Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory
Political doctrines are ways of structuring political life and do not offer a comprehensive philosophy of life. From a multiculturalist perspective, no political doctrine or ideology can represent the full truth of human life. I would therefore like to begin by clarifying what it means and stands for, and then briefly highlight some of the problems facing a multicultural society.
T he political context in which the Constitution was drafted has however altered considerably. Since the dominant group generally welcomes neither, recognition is not given willingly as a gift or an act of grace. This page was last edited on 18 Novemberat T hird, every culture is internally plural and reflects a continuing conversation between multiculturalizm different traditions and strands of thought.
In it, Bhikhu Parekh shows that the Western tradition of political philosophy has very limited theoretical resources to cope with cultural The new second edition includes a substantial additional chapter addressing key issues.
Thanks to the wisdom of bikhu founding fathers, and the judicious balance rtehinking unity and diversity embodied in the Indian Constitution, India has managed to persist for five decades as a territorially intact and moderately successful polity. A multicultural society cannot be stable and last long without developing a common sense of belonging among its citizens.
He was chair of the Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic. It must, therefore, value and kulticulturalism them all equally and reflect this in its structure, policies, conduct of public affairs, self-understanding and self-definition. This is why, although they might personally loathe some of their fellow-members or find their lifestyles, views and values unacceptable, their mutual commitment and concern as members of a shared community remain unaffected.
C ommitment or belonging is reciprocal in nature.
Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory – Wikipedia
Although members of these groups are rethinkung principle free to participate in its public life, they often stay away for fear of rejection and ridicule or out of a deep sense of alienation. Guided by such loyalty, they might criticise their form of government, institutions, policies, values, ethos and dominant self understanding in the strongest possible terms if they think that these harm its survival and well-being.
Since each defines its identity in terms of its multoculturalism from others or what it is not, it feels threatened by them and seeks to safeguard its mulriculturalism by resisting their influences and even avoiding all contacts with them.
A citizen cannot be committed to her political community unless it is also bhkhu to her, and she cannot belong to it unless it accepts her as one of it. This undercuts the very basis of Afrocentrism, Eurocentrism, Indocentrism, Sinocentrism and other kinds of centrisms, all of which isolate the history of the culture concerned from that of others and credit its achievements to its own genius.
This does not mean that it has no powers of self-determination and inner impulses, but rather that it is porous and subject to external influences which it assimilates in its now autonomous ways.
The erstwhile Soviet Union and Yugoslavia lacked the requisite imagination and wisdom and met their doom.